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Kevin BERTIN’s Thesis Defense

by Laurence Laffont - published on

Kevin BERTIN’s thesis defense, intitled "Analyse des impacts environnementaux et socio-économiques des systèmes d’éclairage. Un regard systémique sur les interactions entre les techniques d’éclairage, les humains et leur environnement" (Analysis of the Environmental and Socio-economic Impacts of Lighting Systems. A Systemic Look at the Interactions between Lighting Techniques, Humans and their Environment), supervized by Georges ZISSIS and Marc MÉQUIGNON, will be taking place on Tuesday, March 15th 2022 at 09:00 am.


Meeting ID : 984 5561 2964
Passcode : 038768


- Mr Hassan AIT HADDOU, Rapporteur (École Nationale Supérieur d’Architecture de Montpellier)
- Mr Gilles LERONDEL, Rapporteur (Université de Technologie de Troyes)
- Mr Bruno LAFITTE, Reviewer (ADEME)
- Mr Stuart MUCKLEJOHN, Reviewer (Ceravision Limited - UK)
- Mrs Marie-Pierre GLEIZES, Reviewer (Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier)
- Mr David MALEC, Reviewer (Université Toulouse III - LAPLACE - Paul Sabatier)
- M. Georges ZISSIS, Thesis Supervizor (Université Toulouse III - LAPLACE - Paul Sabatier)
- Mr Marc André MÉQUIGNON, Thesis co-supervizor (Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier)

Abstract :

The recent revolution in lighting systems, which has seen LED technology being widely adopted, has led to considerable progress in terms of energy efficiency during the using phase and has thus helped reduce the environmental impacts and costs associated with lighting systems. This paper discusses the sustainability and efficiency aspects as well as the different direct and indirect impacts that the use of lighting systems generates on humans and their environment.
First of all, a systemic analysis of the challenges of the Anthropocene and what it implies for the societal transition highlights the need for material and energy sobriety, which is essential in order to resolve the climate crisis. This is followed by an initial assessment of the contributions and risks related to the development of new lighting technologies. Despite major advances in terms of energy efficiency, many questions have arisen about the impacts on our environment, health, well-being and productivity which were never properly considered and which need to no longer be neglected. A bibliographical study lists each of these impacts, ranging from photo-biological risks to light pollution and various socio-technical aspects linked to the use of lighting. Various impact analysis methods, both existing and under development, are also presented, in order to identify their advantages and limitations. While Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is probably the most effective and recognised tool to study the environmental impacts of products, services and their evolutions, Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) and Sustainable Life Cycle Assessment (SLA), are still in the process of being developed and will probably require a few more years before they are uniformly recognised and used. This preliminary work has finally highlighted the limitations of these methods when it comes to assessing the various direct or indirect impacts of lighting use, but also the possibility of better taking into account the real conditions of use.
Subsequently, different case studies allow to better take into account these conditions of use but also to discuss the imperatives of sustainability and efficiency through, in particular, the influence of electrical mixes on the results and conclusions of the LCA of lighting systems. A first study on indoor lighting introduces the Megalumen.hour maintained as a functional unit and highlights different energy profiles as well as the presence of a tipping point in France which tends to see the manufacturing phase contributing more to potential impacts than the using phase. Second of all, a life cycle cost analysis (LCC) method confirms this sustainability imperative by defining an economic optimum of life span approximately twice as long as the average lamp currently on the market.
Finally, this work focuses on a multi-criteria analysis of an emerging use of lighting systems: horticultural greenhouses. First, an LCA is carried out to evaluate the performance and impacts of different horticultural lamps considering the products and the specific conditions of use in this field. Then, different methods are proposed to evaluate the light pollution on the walls and outside of the greenhouse. They highlight the systems that contribute the most to night-time light pollution and the means of preventing it. Then a return on investment study evaluates the economic performance of the different configurations tested. Finally, a multi-criteria analysis based on the hierarchical analysis process (HAP) was used to determine which lighting systems are the most relevant according to all the above parameters and results.